Folkhälsomyndigheten står inte för innehållet i externa källor.

  1. Jefferson T, Jones M, Ansari LAA, Bawazeer G, Beller E, Clark J, et al. Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. Part 1 - Face masks, eye protection and person distancing: systematic review and meta-analysis. medRxiv. 2020 Apr 7;2020.03.30.20047217.
  2. Aggarwal N, Dwarakanathan V, Gautam N, Ray A. Facemasks for prevention of viral respiratory infections in community settings: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Indian J Public Health. 2020 Jun;64(Supplement):S192–200.
  3. Brainard J, Jones NR, Lake IR, Hooper L, Hunter PR. Community use of face masks and similar barriers to prevent respiratory illness such as COVID-19: a rapid scoping review. Euro Surveill. 2020 Dec;25(49).
  4. Chou R, Dana T, Jungbauer R, Weeks C, McDonagh MS. Masks for Prevention of Respiratory Virus Infections, Including SARS-CoV-2, in Health Care and Community Settings: A Living Rapid Review. Ann Intern Med. 2020 Jun 24;
  5. Chou R, Dana T, Jungbauer R, Weeks C, McDonagh MS. Update Alert: Masks for Prevention of Respiratory Virus Infections, Including SARS-CoV-2, in Health Care and Community Settings. Ann Intern Med. 2020 Jul 20;
  6. Chou R, Dana T, Jungbauer R, Weeks C. Update Alert 3: Masks for Prevention of Respiratory Virus Infections, Including SARS-CoV-2, in Health Care and Community Settings. Ann Intern Med. 2020 Oct 27;
  7. Doung-Ngern P, Suphanchaimat R, Panjangampatthana A, Janekrongtham C, Ruampoom D, Daochaeng N, et al. Case-Control Study of Use of Personal Protective Measures and Risk for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 15;26(11).
  8. Chu DK, Akl EA, Duda S, Solo K, Yaacoub S, Schünemann HJ, et al. Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet. 2020 Jun;S0140673620311429.
  9. Liang M, Gao L, Cheng C, Zhou Q, Uy JP, Heiner K, et al. Efficacy of face mask in preventing respiratory virus transmission: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2020 May;101751.
  10. MacIntyre CR, Chughtai AA. A rapid systematic review of the efficacy of face masks and respirators against coronaviruses and other respiratory transmissible viruses for the community, healthcare workers and sick patients. Int J Nurs Stud. 2020 Apr 30;108:103629.
  11. Sharma SK, Mishra M, Mudgal SK. Efficacy of cloth face mask in prevention of novel coronavirus infection transmission: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Educ Health Promot. 2020;9:192.
  12. Tabatabaeizadeh S-A. Airborne transmission of COVID-19 and the role of face mask to prevent it: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Med Res. 2021 Jan 2;26(1):1.
  13. Coclite D, Napoletano A, Gianola S, del Monaco A, D’Angelo D, Fauci A, et al. Face Mask Use in the Community for Reducing the Spread of COVID-19: A Systematic Review. Front Med [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2021 May 20];7. Available from:
  14. Talic S, Shah S, Wild H, Gasevic D, Maharaj A, Ademi Z, et al. Effectiveness of public health measures in reducing the incidence of covid-19, SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and covid-19 mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2021 Nov 18;375:e068302.
  15. Goscé L, Phillips PA, Spinola P, Gupta DRK, Abubakar PI. Modelling SARS-COV2 Spread in London: Approaches to Lift the Lockdown. J Infect. 2020 Aug;81(2):260–5.
  16. Mitze T, Kosfeld R, Rode J, Wälde K. Face masks considerably reduce COVID-19 cases in Germany. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Dec 3;
  17. Stutt ROJH, Retkute R, Bradley M, Gilligan CA, Colvin J. A modelling framework to assess the likely effectiveness of facemasks in combination with ‘lock-down’ in managing the COVID-19 pandemic. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 2020 Jun 24;476(2238):20200376.
  18. Eikenberry SE, Mancuso M, Iboi E, Phan T, Eikenberry K, Kuang Y, et al. To mask or not to mask: Modeling the potential for face mask use by the general public to curtail the COVID-19 pandemic. Infect Dis Model. 2020;5:293–308.
  19. Fisman DN, Greer AL, Tuite AR. Bidirectional impact of imperfect mask use on reproduction number of COVID-19: A next generation matrix approach. Infect Dis Model. 2020;5:405–8.
  20. Ngonghala CN, Iboi E, Eikenberry S, Scotch M, MacIntyre CR, Bonds MH, et al. Mathematical assessment of the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions on curtailing the 2019 novel Coronavirus. Math Biosci. 2020 Apr 30;108364.
  21. Worby CJ, Chang H-H. Face mask use in the general population and optimal resource allocation during the COVID-19 pandemic. medRxiv. 2020 Apr 7;
  22. Li T, Liu Y, Li M, Qian X, Dai SY. Mask or no mask for COVID-19: A public health and market study. PLoS One. 2020;15(8):e0237691.
  23. Ngonghala CN, Iboi E, Gumel AB. Could masks curtail the post-lockdown resurgence of COVID-19 in the US? Math Biosci. 2020 Aug 17;108452.
  24. Asadi S, Cappa CD, Barreda S, Wexler AS, Bouvier NM, Ristenpart WD. Efficacy of masks and face coverings in controlling outward aerosol particle emission from expiratory activities. Scientific Reports. 2020 Sep 24;10(1):15665.
  25. Cheng Y, Ma N, Witt C, Rapp S, Wild PS, Andreae MO, et al. Face masks effectively limit the probability of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Science [Internet]. 2021 May 20 [cited 2021 May 21]; Available from:
  26. Wang Y, Tian H, Zhang L, Zhang M, Guo D, Wu W, et al. Reduction of secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in households by face mask use, disinfection and social distancing: a cohort study in Beijing, China. BMJ Glob Health. 2020;5(5).
  27. Iversen BG. Should individuals in the community without respiratory symptoms wear facemasks to reduce the spread of COVID-19? :45.
  28. Leffler CT, Ing EB, Lykins JD, Hogan MC, McKeown CA, Grzybowski A. Association of country-wide coronavirus mortality with demographics, testing, lockdowns, and public wearing of masks. Update August 4, 2020. medRxiv. 2020 Aug 5;2020.05.22.20109231.
  29. Cheng VC-C, Wong S-C, Chuang VW-M, So SY-C, Chen JH-K, Sridhar S, et al. The role of community-wide wearing of face mask for control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic due to SARS-CoV-2. J Infect. 2020;81(1):107–14.
  30. Chiang C-H, Chiang C-H, Chiang C-H, Chen Y-C. The Practice of Wearing Surgical Masks during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 23;26(8):1962.
  31. Hendrix MJ, Walde C, Findley K, Trotman R. Absence of Apparent Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from Two Stylists After Exposure at a Hair Salon with a Universal Face Covering Policy - Springfield, Missouri, May 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Jul 17;69(28):930–2.
  32. Hong L-X, Lin A, He Z-B, Zhao H-H, Zhang J-G, Zhang C, et al. Mask wearing in pre-symptomatic patients prevents SARS-CoV-2 transmission: An epidemiological analysis. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020 Jun 24;101803.
  33. Liu X, Zhang S. COVID-19 : Face Masks and Human-to-human Transmission. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2020 Mar 29;
  34. Lyu W, Wehby GL. Community Use Of Face Masks And COVID-19: Evidence From A Natural Experiment Of State Mandates In The US. Health Aff (Millwood). 2020;101377hlthaff202000818.
  35. MacIntyre CR, Chughtai AA, Seale H, Dwyer DE, Quanyi W. HUMAN CORONAVIRUS DATA FROM FOUR CLINICAL TRIALS OF MASKS AND RESPIRATORS. Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Jun 1;96:631–3.
  36. Xu J, Hussain S, Lu G, Zheng K, Wei S, Bao W, et al. Associations of Stay-at-Home Order and Face-Masking Recommendation with Trends in Daily New Cases and Deaths of Laboratory-Confirmed COVID-19 in the United States. Explor Res Hypothesis Med. 2020 Jul 8;1–10.
  37. Kanu FA. Declines in SARS-CoV-2 Transmission, Hospitalizations, and Mortality After Implementation of Mitigation Measures— Delaware, March–June 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2020 Nov 11];69. Available from:
  38. Rader B, White LF, Burns MR, Chen J, Brilliant J, Cohen J, et al. Mask-wearing and control of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the USA: a cross-sectional study. The Lancet Digital Health. 2021 Mar 1;3(3):e148–57.
  39. Matzinger P, Skinner J. Strong impact of closing schools, closing bars and wearing masks during the Covid-19  pandemic: results from a simple and revealing analysis. medRxiv. 2020 Sep 28;
  40. Bundgaard H, Bundgaard JS, Raaschou-Pedersen DET, von Buchwald C, Todsen T, Norsk JB, et al. Effectiveness of Adding a Mask Recommendation to Other Public Health Measures to Prevent SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Danish Mask Wearers. Ann Intern Med [Internet]. 2020 Nov 18 [cited 2020 Nov 18]; Available from:
  41. Kwon S, Joshi AD, Lo C-H, Drew DA, Nguyen LH, Guo C-G, et al. Association of social distancing and masking with risk of COVID-19. medRxiv. 2020 Nov 13;
  42. Van Dyke MEV. Trends in County-Level COVID-19 Incidence in Counties With and Without a Mask Mandate — Kansas, June 1–August 23, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2020 Nov 23];69. Available from:
  43. CDC. Scientific Brief: Community Use of Cloth Masks to Control the Spread of SARS-CoV-2 [Internet]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2020 [cited 2020 Nov 23]. Available from:
  44. Gallaway MS, Rigler J, Robinson S, Herrick K, Livar E, Komatsu KK, et al. Trends in COVID-19 Incidence After Implementation of Mitigation Measures - Arizona, January 22-August 7, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Oct 9;69(40):1460–3.
  45. ECDC. Using face masks in the community: first update - Effectiveness in reducing transmission of COVID-19 [Internet]. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. 2021 [cited 2021 Feb 16]. Available from:
  46. Crane MA, Shermock KM, Omer SB, Romley JA. Change in Reported Adherence to Nonpharmaceutical Interventions During the COVID-19 Pandemic, April-November 2020. JAMA. 2021 Jan 22;
  47. Falk A. COVID-19 Cases and Transmission in 17 K–12 Schools — Wood County, Wisconsin, August 31–November 29, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2021 Jan 27];70. Available from:
  48. Martín-Sánchez M, Lim WW, Yeung A, Adam DC, Ali ST, Lau EHY, et al. COVID-19 transmission in Hong Kong despite universal masking. J Infect. 2021 Apr 22;
  49. Fischer CB, Adrien N, Silguero JJ, Hopper JJ, Chowdhury AI, Werler MM. Mask adherence and rate of COVID-19 across the United States. PLoS One. 2021;16(4):e0249891.
  50. Li L, Liu B, Liu SH, Ji J, Li Y. Evaluating the Impact of New York’s Executive Order on Face Mask Use on COVID-19 Cases and Mortality: a Comparative Interrupted Times Series Study. J Gen Intern Med. 2021 Apr;36(4):985–9.
  51. Gonçalves MR, Reis RCP dos, Tólio RP, Pellanda LC, Schmidt MI, Katz N, et al. Early Release - Social Distancing, Mask Use, and Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, Brazil, April–June 2020 - Volume 27, Number 8—August 2021 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC. [cited 2021 Jun 23]; Available from:
  52. Scott N, Saul A, Spelman T, Stoove M, Pedrana A, Saeri A, et al. The introduction of a mandatory mask policy was associated with significantly reduced COVID-19 cases in a major metropolitan city. PLOS ONE. 2021 Jul 21;16(7):e0253510.
  53. The Impact of Community Masking on COVID-19: A Cluster-Randomized Trial in Bangladesh [Internet]. Innovations for Poverty Action. 2021 [cited 2021 Sep 3]. Available from:
  54. Rebmann T. SARS-CoV-2 Transmission to Masked and Unmasked Close Contacts of University Students with COVID-19 — St. Louis, Missouri, January–May 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2021 Sep 10];70. Available from:
  55. Riley J, Huntley JM, Miller JA, Slaichert ALB, Brown GD. Early Release - Mask Effectiveness for Preventing Secondary Cases of COVID-19, Johnson County, Iowa, USA - Volume 28, Number 1—January 2022 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC. [cited 2021 Oct 13]; Available from:
  56. Loupa G, Karali D, Rapsomanikis S. Aerosol filtering efficiency of respiratory face masks used during the COVID-19 pandemic [Internet]. Epidemiology; 2020 Jul [cited 2020 Aug 26]. Available from:
  57. Lima MM de S, Cavalcante FML, Macêdo TS, Galindo Neto NM, Caetano JÁ, Barros LM. Cloth face masks to prevent Covid-19 and other respiratory infections. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2020;28:e3353.
  58. Konda A, Prakash A, Moss GA, Schmoldt M, Grant GD, Guha S. Aerosol Filtration Efficiency of Common Fabrics Used in Respiratory Cloth Masks. ACS Nano. 2020 May 26;14(5):6339–47.
  59. Aydin O, Emon B, Cheng S, Hong L, Chamorro LP, Saif MTA. Performance of fabrics for home-made masks against the spread of COVID-19 through droplets: A quantitative mechanistic study. Extreme Mech Lett. 2020 Oct;40:100924.
  60. Verma S. Visualizing droplet dispersal for face shields and masks with exhalation valves: Physics of Fluids: Vol 32, No 9 [Internet]. Physics of Fluids. [cited 2020 Sep 7]. Available from:
  61. Mantzari E, Rubin GJ, Marteau TM. Is risk compensation threatening public health in the covid-19 pandemic? BMJ. 2020 Jul 26;m2913.
  62. Chen Y-J, Qin G, Chen J, Xu J-L, Feng D-Y, Wu X-Y, et al. Comparison of Face-Touching Behaviors Before and During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic. JAMA Netw Open. 2020 Jul 29;3(7):e2016924.
  63. Van der Vliet m. fl. [Gedragswetenschappelijke literatuur over mondkapjes | RIVM] [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2020 Aug 25]. Available from:
  64. [Gedragswetenschappelijke literatuur over mondkapjes] | RIVM. Update 5 Aug 2020. [Internet]. [cited 2020 Aug 31]. Available from:
  65. Shiraly R, Shayan Z, McLaws M-L. Face touching in the time of COVID-19 in Shiraz, Iran. Am J Infect Control. 2020 Dec;48(12):1559–61.
  66. Betsch C, Korn L, Sprengholz P, Felgendreff L, Eitze S, Schmid P, et al. Social and behavioral consequences of mask policies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Aug 20;
  67. Seale H, Dyer CEF, Abdi I, Rahman KM, Sun Y, Qureshi MO, et al. Improving the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions during COVID-19: examining the factors that influence engagement and the impact on individuals. BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 17;20(1):607.
  68. Tao Z-Y, Dong J, Culleton R. The use of facemasks may not lead to an increase in hand-face contact. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020 Jun 28;
  69. Li W, Zhou J, Lu J-A. The effect of behavior of wearing masks on epidemic dynamics. Nonlinear Dyn. 2020 Jun 22;1–7.
  70. Cartaud A, Quesque F, Coello Y. Wearing a face mask against Covid-19 results in a reduction of social distancing. PLoS One. 2020;15(12):e0243023.
  71. Mickells GE, Figueroa J, West KW, Wood A, McElhanon BO. Adherence to Masking Requirement During the COVID-19 Pandemic by Early Elementary School Children. J Sch Health. 2021 May 16;
  72. Kellerer JD, Rohringer M, Deufert D. Behavior in the use of face masks in the context of COVID-19. Public Health Nurs. 2021 May 3;
  73. Yan Y, Bayham J, Richter A, Fenichel EP. Risk compensation and face mask mandates during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sci Rep. 2021 Feb 4;11(1):3174.
  74. Jørgensen F, Lindholt MF, Bor A, Petersen MB. Does face mask use elicit risk-compensation? Quasi-experimental evidence from Denmark during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. European Journal of Public Health [Internet]. 2021 Aug 14 [cited 2021 Aug 16];(ckab136). Available from: